Flanges represent flat or rectangular rings with evenly spaced holes for bolts and studs that are vital for a strong and tight connection of pipes, microwave waveguides and pipe fittings. Flanges are used for joining components to each other, connection with the machinery, apparatus and vessels, as well as for the connection of shafts and other rotating parts. Flanges are primarily designed for usage in pairs.
Flanges can be elements of pipes, fittings, shafts, housing parts, etc. These components in the form of individual parts are often welded or screwed to the endings of the parts. The shape of the sealing surface of the flange in the pipes depends on the pressure of the medium, profile and gasket material. Smooth surface with sealing gaskets made of cardboard, rubber and paronite are used at pressures up to 4 MPa (40 bar), the surface with a projection on one flange and hollow on the other with ANBO-metallic gaskets and paronite are used at pressures up to 20 MPa (200 bar), while flanges with a conical sealing surface are taken advantage of at pressures above 6.4 MPa (64 bar).
The material used for the manufacture of such parts is steel type 45 – high quality structural carbon steel. Nickel informs steel corrosion resistance, while high strength and ductility increase hardenability. Sulfur in its turn is considered to be harmful impurity, as it increases the abrasion steel reduces fatigue resistance and reduces the corrosion resistance. Phosphorus is also harmful impurities. Chrome is the cheapest and most abundant element, which increases the hardness and strength, decreases ductility and slightly increases the corrosion resistance. The large amounts of chromium make the steel stainless and provide stability of magnetic forces; copper increases the corrosion resistance.
Processing of metals is carried out under certain conditions. The set of indicators describing the conditions of the process of cutting is referred to as cutting conditions. Metal cutting is necessary to maintain proper regimes under which the power of the machine and the resistance of the cutting tool are used with maximum efficiency, high quality treatment provided, the highest performance and safe working environment are ensured.
The main cutting indicators include speed – V, supply – S and cutting depth.
Cutting speed V (m/min) is peripheral speed (m/min) of the most remote points from the axis of rotation of the tool of the cutting blade.
Supply, or S, is the feed path traversed by the tool relative to the workpiece (or vice versa) per unit time. Supply is measured in millimeters per minute (mm / min) or by one revolution of the workpiece or tool (mm/rev).Cutting depth is the thickness of the workpiece material (mm) cut off in one stroke.
The technological aspects mentioned are calculated by experts at production facilities. Thus, e.g. Alexandercomley, a reputed firm specializing in flanges manufacturing, creates a number of technological process documents, verified by engineers and equipment operators prior to integrating the process into production.